Roundup on workplace bullying and women

The links between workplace bullying and women are multifaceted, ranging from survey data showing that women are more frequently targeted than men, to the complex topic of female-to-female bullying. I’ve collected some blog posts that examine some of these important aspects:

New WBI workplace bullying survey: Men bully more than women, and women are most frequent bullying targets (2014)

The latest Workplace Bullying Institute public opinion survey on workplace bullying in the U.S., summarized here last week, yielded a number of useful, albeit unsurprising, findings concerning gender:

  • Men are 69% of the perpetrators and females are 31%;
  • When men bully, females are 57% of targets and males are 43%;
  • When women bully, females are 68% of targets and males are 32%;
  • Overall, women are 60% of bullying targets and men are 40%.

These figures largely affirm previous statistical trends on workplace bullying and gender breakdowns.

Female-to-female workplace bullying: Homespun theory on an imperfect storm (2011)

In this post I pulled together survey data and commentaries on female-to-female bullying in an attempt to fashion a connect-the-dots theory on this complex dynamic:

These factors coalesce into an imperfect storm, whereby women who have been treated poorly or even abusively at work by other women are more likely to perceive the behaviors in very negative and hurtful ways. It may help to explain, for example, why female-dominated professions such as nursing have cultures of incivility — “nurses eat their young” is a well-known quip — grounded in characterizations of “catty” aggression.

This also means that women have to be more self-aware of their behaviors than do men, on average. It is unfair that women who mistreat others may be judged more severely than men who act in the same way, but that is an enduring reality.

Kerri Stone on “Why Gender Considerations Should Inform the Emerging Law of Workplace Bullying”

The leading law review article on workplace bullying and gender is a 2009 piece by Prof. Kerri Stone (Florida International U.). I’ve mentioned this article and Kerri’s work in several posts, but rather than paraphrase those references, here’s part of the article abstract (go here for full abstract and download link to article):

This Article submits that the documented phenomenon of workplace bullying operates to stymie the retention and advancement of women in the workplace. . . . This Article adds a new dimension . . . by viewing workplace bullying through the lens of gender discrimination, albeit perhaps unwitting gender discrimination. It explores the disparate impact doctrine of liability and examines how its rationale, ideological underpinnings, framework, and viability as a vehicle might look against the backdrop of workplace bullying. . . . In addition to contemplating possible uses of Title VII, this Article examines proposed state statutes, and posits the possible creation of a federal agency to deal with the problem in a manner that may not implicate a private right of action. It is only through increased awareness and renewed discussion of all of the discriminatory ramifications of bullying, that this last bastion of legally protected workplace abuse, which typically occurs behind closed doors and whose effects are too often obscured, will be stopped.

Is gaslighting a gendered form of workplace bullying? (2013)

Gaslighting “is a form of psychological abuse in which false information is presented with the intent of making a victim doubt his or her own memory, perception and sanity” (Wikipedia). It is commonly associated with workplace bullying, and in this post I examine its potentially gendered dynamics:

But I’ll place a heavy bet that these lines are directed at a lot more women than men, including in the workplace. They are meant to plant seeds of self-doubt that add to the crazy-making dynamics of being bullied, at times with a big dose of discriminatory intent. The e-mail chain you were left off of…the meeting you weren’t included in…the lunch at the club you weren’t invited to…You’re so sensitive. You’re so emotional. You’re defensive. You’re overreacting.

Of course, this is just the comparatively minor stuff. If you’ve seen more harrowing, malicious forms of gaslighting related to work — sabotage, stalking, electronic harassment, and so forth — you know what I mean. This can be among the most vicious of bullying tactics.

Singled out? Workplace bullying, economic insecurity, and the unmarried woman (2010)

Membership in any demographic group will not shield one from the realities of today’s workplace and economy. After all, plenty of white males with families and homes in the ‘burbs have experienced difficult work environments and unemployment. But when you start pulling together information about who is targeted for bullying at work and who is suffering financial distress, single women start to emerge as an especially vulnerable group.

Workplace bullying, stress, and fibromyalgia (2011)

Fibromyalgia is a chronic, disabling medical condition marked by widespread pain and fatigue that afflicts women far more often than men. . . . The Workplace Bullying Institute recognizes that fibromyalgia can be a consequence of workplace bullying . . . . Research is making the link: For example, a 2008 study led by Canadian researcher Sandy Hershcovis . . . found that workplace bullying targets were more likely to develop fibromyalgia. A 2004 study led by Finnish researcher Mika Kivimaki . . . found that stress at work “seems to be a contributing factor in the development of fibromyalgia.”

***

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New WBI workplace bullying survey: Men bully more than women, and women are most frequent bullying targets

The latest Workplace Bullying Institute public opinion survey on workplace bullying in the U.S., summarized here last week, yielded a number of useful, albeit unsurprising, findings concerning gender:

  • Men are 69% of the perpetrators and females are 31%;
  • When men bully, females are 57% of targets and males are 43%;
  • When women bully, females are 68% of targets and males are 32%;
  • Overall, women are 60% of bullying targets and men are 40%.

These figures largely affirm previous statistical trends on workplace bullying and gender breakdowns.

The 2014 WBI survey, done in conjunction with Zogby Analytics, surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1,000 adults in late January. A full 17-page summary of the survey findings is available in pdf format here.

***

Kerri Stone’s work on gender and workplace bullying

These results underscore the relevance of Prof. Kerri Stone’s (Florida International University) 2009 law review article on gender considerations concerning workplace bullying. (You may access the article abstract and pdf here.)

Previous post

I attempted to piece together my thoughts on the challenging question of female-to-female bullying in this 2011 blog post, “Female-to-female workplace bullying: Homespun theory on an imperfect storm.”

Miami Dolphins and Richie Incognito: Sports Illustrated declares win for anti-bullying movement

Sports Illustrated has declared victory for the anti-bullying movement in the Miami Dolphins workplace bullying story.

Earlier this month, the Dolphins suspended player Richie Incognito in the wake of alleged severe, threatening bullying behaviors toward teammate Jonathan Martin. Within days, the story went national.

A front-of-the-book piece in the Nov. 18 issue of SI by editor L. Jon Wertheim (not yet available online) notes that the story is “pitting the NFL’s macho old guard against the antibullying movement” and says that we “might be surprised at who’s winning handily.” Wertheim observes:

But this is a quintessentially American creation, a stew of sports and violence and manhood and media and tribalism and ostracism — with a race/class garnish. And it also involves perhaps one of the country’s most powerful movements in recent years. This has already been a massive victory for the antibullying forces.

He closes his piece this way:

As we watch, we’ve already arrived at a cultural moment that has taught us this: When even the toughest, meanest jocks mess with antibullying movement, they’re not winning the fight.

Folks, I’ve been subscribing to SI for over 40 years, going back to my earliest days as a sports fan. Take my word for it, this article is a modest, yet meaningful milestone in itself. Okay, so in classic sports journalism fashion, they had to declare a winner and a loser. But it shows how the anti-bullying movement — and in this specific context, the workplace anti-bullying movement — is gaining steam and becoming mainstreamed.

Roundup of other commentary

While we’re at it, let me offer this roundup of commentary on the Miami Dolphins story from folks within my network of friends and associates:

Gary Namie in the national media

Dr. Gary Namie has been commenting extensively in the national media and on the Workplace Bullying Institute blog about the Dolphins situation. Go here for a National Public Radio interview, “How Best to Manage Workplace Bullying,” with Linda Wertheimer. Also, here’s what he wrote about media commentary on the story:

It’s getting harder to find apologists among the sports cognoscenti at ESPN to defend the Miami Dolphins designated bully Richie Incognito. The Miami Dolphins post-game panel after Monday Night Football on Nov. 11 stated unanimously that the locker room culture in every team would have to change just as surely as approaches to concussions have changed. They spoke of “neanderthals” in the locker room growing extinct. That the league has to evolve because other workplaces don’t behave abusively. (Oops. Yes they do. That’s the message about workplace bullying.)

Ellen Pinkos Cobb on workplace anti-bullying laws elsewhere

Attorney Ellen Pinkos Cobb uses the Dolphins story to note that the U.S. has yet to enact legal protections against workplace bullying, in contrast to other nations. Here’s a snippet from her piece for Workplace Violence News:

The US would do well to look around the world. Numerous countries have legislation to protect workers from bullying. Canada, Australia, and nine European countries have enacted anti-bullying laws, including Sweden, France, and Denmark, and Serbia. As of January 1, 2014, an Australian worker who believes he or she has been bullied may apply to the Fair Work Commission for an investigation and if cause is found, have an order issued to the employer to stop the bullying.

Ellen’s very helpful transnational resource, Bullying, Violence, Harassment, Discrimination and Stress – Emerging Workplace Health and Safety Issues, updated this year, is available from the Isoceles Group, with which she is affiliated.

Kerri Stone asks why the Incognito story

Law professor Kerri Stone (Florida International U.), in a Huffington Post piece, examines how a story involving NFL players has brought workplace bullying to the public spotlight:

In the wake of the Richie Incognito suspension, a big question that we need to ask is…why? With bullying so rampant in society, why has this story captivated the public imagination? And why did the Dolphins decide to suspend him that Sunday afternoon after initially defending him in a statement released just that morning?

My commentary

I was interviewed by Alex Hopkins for the Washington Times last week:

David C. Yamada, a law professor and director of Suffolk University Law School’s New Workplace Institute, has drafted a model “Healthy Workplace Bill” which tries to define what constitutes an “abusive work environment.”

He wrote recently that workplace bullying tends to get overlooked because the human interest appeal typically doesn’t reach the level of bullying children.

“Although workplace bullying is one of the most common forms of interpersonal abuse at work, most people targeted for this mistreatment are unlikely to find the media interested in their stories. In [Miami Dolphins] case, without the growing media attention, it’s possible that the whole thing would’ve been swept under the rug,” said Mr. Yamada. “Most bullying targets must deal with the abuse on a wildly uneven playing field, and having a legal wedge will help to level things out.”

I also wrote a blog post last week, “Nine preliminary lessons from the Miami Dolphins workplace bullying story.”

Temple law school conference examines bullying across the lifespan

(l to r) Prof. Kerri Stone, Prof. Susan Harthill, yours truly

Workplace bullying panelists: (l to r) Prof. Kerri Stone, Prof. Susan Harthill, and DY

I was fortunate to participate over the weekend in “Bullying: Redefining Boundaries, Responsibility, and Harm,” an excellent conference sponsored by the Temple Political & Civil Rights Law Review at Temple University’s Beasley School of Law in Philadelphia.

To the best of my knowledge, this is the first American conference devoted to examining the legal implications of bullying behaviors across the lifespan.

From children to seniors

The conference brought together academics, practitioners, and advocates from across the country who have been addressing the legal and policy aspects of bullying in different social and institutional settings.

The program took a chronological approach, starting with bullying among school kids, moving on to higher education settings, then to the workplace, and finally to seniors. The final panel examined best practices across that span. It was a great decision to organize the day that way.

The proceedings also featured a keynote address by Emily Bazelon, author of Sticks and Stones (2013), which examines the culture of bullying among teens in the Internet and social media age. Bazelon’s book has generated considerable media interest, and her address filled the room.

For a full list of speakers and their bios, go here.

Workplace bullying panel

Pictured above are panelists for the workplace bullying panel, Prof. Kerri Stone (Florida International University College of Law), Prof. Susan Harthill (Florida Coastal School of Law), and yours truly. Our panel was ably moderated by Shannon Minter of the National Center for Lesbian Rights.

  • I opened the panel by discussing the concept of workplace bullying generally, then quickly summarized existing legal protections for targets before examining the anti-bullying Healthy Workplace Bill and responses to it.
  • Prof. Harthill discussed her work on applying the Occupational Safety and Health Act to bullying situations and summarized the growing list of legal responses to workplace bullying in other nations.
  • Prof. Stone discussed her work on the gender implications of workplace bullying and then examined how the National Labor Relations Board’s decisions on social media might affect employers’ ability to address bullying.

Susan and Kerri have made important contributions to the body of legal scholarship on workplace bullying, and I have great respect for their work. It was very nice that the three of us finally could be on a panel together.

More to come

Podcasts, PowerPoint slides, and other materials from the conference will be made freely available to the public via the conference website. (I will post an update on this blog.) In addition, the Temple Political & Civil Rights Law Review will publish proceedings and essays emerging from the conference in a volume scheduled to appear over the summer. I will be contributing a piece on the emergence of the legal movement against workplace bullying.

Many thanks

Our Temple hosts put together a superb program and topped it off with a ton of hospitality. The conference attracted over 140 registrants, including a lot of Temple law students.

I’d especially like to thank Prof. Nancy Knauer, conference organizer, and law student Naveed Hassan, symposium editor for the journal, for their work on this conference. Their devotion to making this a worthwhile experience for everyone resulted in a memorable exchange of information and ideas.

***

4/2/13 update: I’ve posted a draft of my law review essay, “Emerging American Legal Responses to Workplace Bullying,” to my Social Science Research Network page. It can be downloaded without charge, here.

The American academic response to workplace bullying: A grounded orientation

Serious social problems typically attract a variety of scholars who engage in research and education designed to address them. This is no different with workplace bullying in the U.S.

However, whereas some social problems attract gobs of attention from those affiliated with elite academic institutions, the American academic response to workplace bullying has been driven, for the most part, by professors holding appointments at state and regional private universities. I believe this is a telling reason why so much of the important scholarly work concerning workplace bullying has genuine real world application.

Pioneering scholars

Consider the current institutional affiliations of some of the pioneering American academicians on workplace bullying and related behaviors: Loraleigh Keashly (Wayne State), Joel Neuman (SUNY New Paltz), Pamela Lutgen-Sandvik (New Mexico), Suzi Fox (Loyola-Chicago), Judith Richman (Illinois-Chicago), and Kathleen Rospenda (Illinois-Chicago). Fine schools all, but not the Ivy League.

What ties their work together is a quality of intellectually stimulating research that consistently demonstrates on-the-ground relevance. This is not the space to engage in a summary of their studies and writings, but suffice it to say that their work is the stuff of both fascinating seminar discussions and practical insights into workplace behaviors.

In the emerging field of occupational health psychology, which has proven to be very hospitable to workplace bullying research, we see similar types of institutional affiliations. For example, the current and past presidents of the Society for Occupational Health Psychology include Vicki Magley (Connecticut), Janet Barnes-Farrell (Connecticut), Robert Sinclair (Clemson), Peter Chen (Colorado State), and Leslie Hammer (Portland State).

At this juncture, Robert Sutton (Stanford) is one of the few professors affiliated with an elite American university who is devoting serious attention to bullying-type behaviors.

Law schools

A similar picture emerges in terms of legal scholarship on workplace bullying. Most of the significant law review commentary has originated from a small group of law professors holding appointments at regional law schools.

In addition to my work as a professor at Suffolk University Law School in Boston, other law professors authoring major pieces primarily about workplace bullying have included Brady Coleman (formerly at South Texas), Susan Harthill (Florida Coastal), and Kerri Stone (Florida International).

Non-traditional universities

Finally, non-traditional, distance learning universities are playing a major role in training the next wave of scholar-practitioners to enter the fray.

In fact, many of the first American dissertations and theses on workplace bullying came from students enrolled at places such as Walden University, Fielding Graduate University, Capella University, and the University of Phoenix.

Why? Because the flexible delivery models and practice-friendly orientations of those schools are hospitable to adult learners, and workplace bullying is more likely to be a topic that attracts people who have experienced the workplace.

Origins

This grounded response has been strongly influenced by the roots of the American movement to respond to workplace bullying.

Much of the original impetus to label and address bullying at work in the U.S. came from Drs. Gary and Ruth Namie during the late 1990s.  More than a decade later, their Workplace Bullying Institute (WBI) is the most significant North American non-governmental organization addressing the problem today.

WBI is not a huge think tank operation; its small staff works on all aspects of bullying, ranging from its effects on individuals to the need for effective legal responses. While WBI has moved beyond being a shoestring operation, its resources pale compared to those of the Chamber of Commerce and the Society for Human Resource Management, two trade associations with very different takes on workplace bullying and the need for legal reform.

WBI has served as an important link between the practice and academic communities. From the start, the Namies made a concerted effort to link university professors, practitioners, and activists who are committed to addressing workplace bullying, and I believe that orientation played a critical role in creating a core community that respects both research and practice.

Ground level

Workplace bullying can lend itself to abstract theorizing, but it makes more sense when grasped at the ground level.

Thus, universities that welcome scholarship about workplace bullying may well be those that are neither fearful nor disdainful of the real world and do not greet the term “applied research” with knee-jerk hostility. They may be more likely to attract faculty and graduate students who have not led rarefied lives that might cause them to scoff at the notion of people and organizations suffering from the psychological abuse of employees.

Also, it is probable that workplace bullying, especially before it started to enter the mainstream of American employment relations, scared off more than a few potential professors and graduate students at elite schools because it seemed too risky to delve into something new and unexplored. Caution and timidity are two dominant, less-admirable traits of academe, and their hold can get stronger as one climbs the academic hierarchy.

Challenge

However, this relative paucity of elite institutional affiliations means that the American intellectual response to workplace bullying is something of a Little Engine That Could. While we can pat ourselves on the back for our populist look & feel, we also know that in traditional academe, institutional prestige counts for a lot with some folks.

Furthermore, in surveying law school employment law casebooks, industrial/organizational psychology treatises, labor relations texts, and the like, it is worth noting that workplace bullying still doesn’t get a lot of play. If workplace bullying is to become fully integrated into the study and practice of employment relations, that must change.

In sum, we academicians have our work cut out for us in terms of educating our colleagues about workplace bullying and its significance as a topic of research and study.

Workplace bullying, stress, and fibromyalgia

Over the past few weeks I’ve had conversations, in person and online, with three women who have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia, and each has experienced severe bullying and heavy-duty stress at work. If you’re unfamiliar with fibromyalgia, here’s a chance to learn something about it.

Fibromyalgia is a chronic, disabling medical condition marked by widespread pain and fatigue that afflicts women far more often than men. Compared to many other serious maladies, research on fibromyalgia is an early work in progress, but we’re learning a lot about it. According to the Mayo Clinic:

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in your muscles, ligaments and tendons, as well as fatigue and multiple tender points — places on your body where slight pressure causes pain.

Fibromyalgia occurs in about 2 percent of the population in the United States. Women are much more likely to develop the disorder than are men, and the risk of fibromyalgia increases with age. Fibromyalgia symptoms often begin after a physical or emotional trauma, but in many cases there appears to be no triggering event.

In other words, we’re talking about severe, ongoing pain and the power of a knockout punch.

Gender implications

The gender implications of fibromyalgia are significant. Let’s juxtapose some numbers: If the Mayo Clinic is correct in stating that fibromyalgia will occur in 2 percent of the population, and if studies such as this one suggesting that 9 in 10 sufferers are female are even close to hitting the mark, then we have a hidden epidemic among women.

Bullying connection

The Workplace Bullying Institute recognizes that fibromyalgia can be a consequence of workplace bullying (link here). Research is making the link: For example, a 2008 study led by Canadian researcher Sandy Hershcovis (news coverage, here) found that workplace bullying targets were more likely to develop fibromyalgia. A 2004 study led by Finnish researcher Mika Kivimaki (abstract, here), found that stress at work “seems to be a contributing factor in the development of fibromyalgia.”

Anecdotally, here’s a blog post from a nurse manager who suffers from fibromyalgia and is grasping the link to her experiences of bullying at work:

But, it is affecting my health.  She is a bully and she wants me out of the office- end of discussion.  How do you deal with people like this?  Just this morning, there walks one of her patients right into our office.  Do I say anything, like “See, you have patients in here!”  No, I did not say a thing!  I just turned around and kept working!  I think that is why some of us are so sick!

Connections to law reform

The bullying/fibromyalgia connection bolsters the argument for legal reform. When the Healthy Workplace Bill is enacted into law, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia may be sufficient to establish a showing of physical harm in support of a legal claim.

Furthermore, the fibromyalgia/bullying connection relates to the work of two Florida law professors who have been writing on other aspects workplace bullying and the law:

  • Professor Susan Harthill of Florida Coastal School of Law has written about possible applications of occupational safety and health law to workplace bullying (abstract, here).
  • Professor Kerri Stone of Florida International University College of Law has written about how workplace bullying has discriminatory impact on women, even if on its face it is an “equal opportunity” form of mistreatment (abstract, here).

Sadly, it’s not as if we need to add another disabling condition to the list of those that can result from workplace bullying. Nevertheless, the more we understand the destructive nature of bullying, the stronger our arguments will be to respond to it.

***

Note: Both Susan Harthill and Kerri Stone are scheduled to present on a panel about workplace bullying & the law with me, Dr. Gary Namie of the Workplace Bullying Institute, and Prof. Lea Vaughn of the University of Washington Law School at the biennial Congress of the International Academy of Law and Mental Health (link here) next July in Berlin.

Announcing the U.S. Academy on Workplace Bullying, Mobbing, and Abuse

academy-web

The Workplace Bullying Institute and the New Workplace Institute are collaborating on an important new initiative, the creation of the U.S. Academy on Workplace Bullying, Mobbing, and Abuse.

The Academy will support and promote the multi-disciplinary work of its Fellows, a group of leading and emerging educators, researchers, practitioners, writers, and advocates who are dedicated to understanding, preventing, stopping, and responding to workplace bullying and related forms of interpersonal mistreatment.

Although we recognize the universality of these destructive behaviors, we are creating this network to focus on the unique challenges posed by American employee relations, mental health, and legal systems.

This initiative has been in the works for over a year, and I’m delighted to see it taking shape. The Academy’s website, to which more will be added in the months and years to come, is here. And here is the initial list of Fellows.

Academy Co-Facilitators

    • Gary Namie, Ph.D.
      Director, Workplace Bullying Institute, Bellingham, WA
    • David C. Yamada, J.D.
      Professor of Law and Director, New Workplace Institute, Suffolk University Law School, Boston, MA

Academy Fellows

(Note: Fellow status does not imply agreement with, or endorsement of, editorial, analytical, or public policy positions taken by the Workplace Bullying Institute or the New Workplace Institute.)

    • Beverly J. Aho, M.B.A., J.D.
      Attorney, James H. Gilbert Law Group, Eden Prarie, MN
    • Carol Arao, M.A.
      Co-Coordinator, California Healthy Workplace Advocates
      Columnist, Workplace Bullying Institute blog
    • David W. Ballard, Psy.D., M.B.A.
      Assistant Executive Director for Organizational Excellence
      American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
    • Peggy Ann Berry, Ph.D. candidate, R.N., SPHR, COHN-S
      Owner, Thrive At Life: Working Solutions Dayton, OH
    • Jane Bethel
      President, SEIU/NAGE Local R4-200, Norfolk, VA
      State Coordinator, Virginia Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Sharon Brennan, Ph.D.
      Past Pres. & 2014 President-elect, Division of Organizational, Consulting & Work Psychology
      New York State Psychological Association; Psychoanalyst, NY, NY
    • Jessi Eden Brown, M.S., LMHC, LPC, NCC
      Psychotherapist, Seattle, WA
      Professional Coach, Workplace Bullying Institute
    • Carrie Clark, M.A.
      Co-Founder, California Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Ellen Pinkos Cobb, J.D.
      Senior Legal Analyst, Isoceles Group, Boston, MA
      Author, Bullying, Violence, Harassment, Discrimination and Stress: Emerging Workplace Health and Safety Issues (2013)
    • Lana Cooke
      State Coordinator, West Virginia Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Barbara Coloroso
      Author, The Bully, The Bullied and the Bystander (Wm. Morrow, 2009)
      Expert in Youth Bullying, Littleton, CO
    • Pamela Countouris
      Bullying Prevention Trainer and Consultant, TCB Training & Consulting, Pittsburgh, PA
    • Teresa A. Daniel, J.D., Ph.D.
      Dean & Professor, Human Resource Leadership Program, Sullivan University
      Consultant & Author, Stop Bullying At Work (SHRM, 2009)
    • Michelle K. Duffy, Ph.D.
      Professor, Work & Organizations, Center for Human Resources & Labor Studies
      Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota
    • Maureen Duffy, Ph.D.
      Author, Overcoming Mobbing (Oxford U Press, 2014) and Mobbing: Causes, Consequences & Cures
      (Oxford U Press, 2012) and Psychotherapist & Consultant, Miami Shores, FL
    • Lisa Farwell, Ph.D.
      Professor of Psychology, Santa Monica College
    • Carol Fehner
      Co-Coordinator, California Healthy Workplace Advocates
      Union Bullying Consultant, AFGE National Officer (Ret.)
    • Bernice L. Fields, J.D.
      Arbitrator & Attorney, Minneapolis, MN
    • Jackie Gilbert, Ph.D.
      Professor of Management, Middle Tennessee State University
      State Coordinator, Tennessee Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Denise Halverson, Ph.D.
      Professor of Mathematics, Brigham Young University
      State Coordinator, Utah Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Leslie Hammer, Ph.D.
      Professor of Psychology, Portland State University
    • Katherine A. Hermes, J.D., Ph.D.
      Professor of History, Central Connecticut State University
    • Victoria Johnson, Ph.D.
      Author & State Coordinator, Pennsylvania Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Melody M. Kawamoto, M.D., M.S.
      Public Health & Occupational Medicine Physician, Cincinnati, OH
    • Loraleigh Keashly, Ph.D.
      Associate Professor of Communications, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
    • Wynne Kearney, Jr., M.D.
      Surgeon & Activist, Mankato, MN
    • Kevin Kennemer, M.A.
      President, The People Group, Tulsa, OK
    • Paul Landsbergis, M.P.H., Ed.D., Ph.D.
      Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
      SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY
    • Pamela Lutgen-Sandvik, Ph.D.
      Associate Professor of Communication, North Dakota State University
      Author, Adult Bullying: A Nasty Piece of Work (2013)
    • Lewis Maltby, J.D.
      Founder & Director, National Workrights Institute, Princeton, NJ
      Author, Can They Do That? Retaking Our Fundamental Rights in the Workplace (Portfolio, 2009)
    • Andrew Mitchell
      Activist, Blogger – Stop Workplace Bullies Now, Dixon, IL
    • Ruth F. Namie, Ph.D.
      Founder, Workplace Bullying Institute
      Author, The Bully-Free Workplace (Wiley, 2011) and The Bully At Work (Sourcebooks, 2009, 2nd ed.)
    • Joel H. Neuman, Ph.D.
      Director Center for Applied Management, State University of New York at New Paltz
      Associate Professor of Management and Organizational Behavior
    • Christina Purpora, R.N., Ph.D.
      Associate Professor of Nursing, University of San Francisco
    • Judith A. Richman, Ph.D.
      Professor of Epidemiology in Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago
    • Heidi R. Riggio, Ph.D.
      Professor of Psychology, California State University, Los Angeles
    • Kathleen M. Rospenda, Ph.D.
      Associate Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago
    • Mike Schlicht, M.S.
      Founder & Co-Director, New York Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Peter Schnall, M.D., M.P.H.
      Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Irvine
      Director, Center for Social Epidemiology
    • Michelle E. Smith, M.A.Ed.
      Co-Founder, California Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Gregory Sorozan, M.Ed., L.C.S.W.
      President SEIU/NAGE Local 282, Quincy, MA
      State Coordinator, Massachusetts Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Matt Spencer, Ed.D.
      Consultant, Workplace Bullying in Schools Project
      Author, Exploiting Children: School Board Members Who Cross the Line (R&L Education, 2013)
    • Len Sperry, M.D., Ph.D.
      Clinical Professor, Florida Atlantic University & Medical College of Wisconsin
      Author, Overcoming Mobbing (Oxford U Press, 2014) and Mobbing: Causes, Consequences & Cures
      (Oxford U Press, 2012)
    • Lamont E. Stallworth, Ph.D.
      Professor of Human Resources and Industrial Relations, Loyola University of Chicago
      Founder & Chairman, Center for Employment Dispute Resolution
    • Kerri L. Stone, J.D.
      Associate Professor of Law, Florida International University, Miami, FL
    • USN LCDR Leedjia A. Svec, Ph.D.
      Director & Senior Scientist, Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute, Patrick AFB, FL
    • Bennett J. Tepper, Ph.D.
      Deans Distinguished Professor of Management & Human Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
    • Darren Treadway, M.B.A., Ph.D.
      Associate Professor of Organization & Human Resources, State University of New York at Buffalo
    • Esque Walker, M.S., Ph.D.
      Arbitrator/Texas Credentialed Distinguished Mediator
      State Coordinator, Texas Healthy Workplace Advocates
    • Tom Witt, M.L.S.
      Co-Director, New York Healthy Workplace Advocates
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